Introduction to FRI Leases (A Deep Dive!)

FRI leases


A full repairing and insuring lease, known as an FRI lease, is a commercial lease which gives the tenant sole responsibility for the maintenance, repair, and insurance of the property for the duration of their tenancy contract.

This means that for the duration of their tenancy, the tenant assumes full responsibility for the upkeep of the building’s interior, structure, and sometimes exterior. Under an FRI lease, the tenant is required to leave the premises either in a “tenantable condition” or in the same condition as it was at the beginning of the tenancy, depending on the terminology of the lease agreement.

FRI leases are often seen as favourable for landlords of commercial properties as they relieve the landlord of any responsibilities regarding the maintenance of the building. The requirement that a tenant leaves a property either in its original state or in a tenantable condition can result in tenants bearing the weight of expensive repair and maintenance costs which would otherwise have fallen on the landlord.

FRI leases have been a longstanding feature of the commercial property letting market, reflecting a preference among landlords for shifting maintenance and repair costs to tenants. This arrangement has been seen as particularly favourable to landlords, who can thus avoid the complexities and expenses associated with building upkeep.

Despite general rules applying across FRI leases, determining which party is responsible for what in an individual agreement can be complex, leading to confusion and disputes.

Given the potentially significant obligations for tenants under FRI leases, it’s crucial to conduct thorough due diligence before entering into such agreements. This might include undertaking a property survey to ascertain the building’s condition at the start of the lease and negotiating terms that fairly balance responsibilities and risks.

Tenants should also be aware of the specific challenges associated with older buildings, such as issues with roofing, dampness, and subsidence, which can be particularly costly to address.

Both parties should thoroughly understand their responsibilities and rights under an FRI lease to ensure the agreement serves their interests effectively.


Section A: The Importance of FRI Leases in Commercial Real Estate


1. Key Feature in the UK Property Market


FRI leases are standard in the UK commercial property market due to their distinct structure and obligations to tenants.

The popularity of FRI leases in the UK market can be attributed to their clear structure, which offers a straightforward approach to property responsibility. This clarity appeals to both landlords, who can safeguard their investments without micromanaging property maintenance, and tenants, who gain a clear understanding of their obligations from the outset.

The lease arrangement is conducive to long-term property investment strategies, providing landlords with financial predictability and security over their assets.

Despite their advantages, entering into an FRI lease requires careful consideration and, often, legal advice to navigate the complexities and mitigate potential risks, especially for tenants facing substantial obligations .


2. FRI Leases & Landlords


Landlords favour FRI leases because they transfer the tenant all responsibility for maintenance, repairs, and property insurance. This arrangement significantly reduces the landlord’s financial and administrative burden regarding property upkeep. By ensuring that tenants are responsible for keeping the property in good condition and even restoring it to its original state at the end of the lease, landlords can maintain or potentially increase the property’s value without incurring the associated costs.


3. FRI Leases & Tenants


While FRI leases impose considerable responsibilities on tenants, they also offer tenants certain benefits. Tenants have the autonomy to manage the property according to their standards, which is particularly beneficial if the building is newer and less likely to require extensive repairs.

Tenants might negotiate terms within an FRI lease to limit their financial exposure, such as capping repair costs or excluding specific responsibilities. This negotiation process can result in more tailored lease terms that fit the tenant’s needs and financial capabilities.


Section B: Obligations Under an FRI Lease


Under an FRI lease in the UK, the obligations and responsibilities are distinctly allocated between landlords and tenants, with the main burden falling on the tenants. Understanding these responsibilities can help both parties navigate the common pitfalls associated with these leases.


1. Landlord Responsibilities


a. Initial Condition
At the start of the lease, landlords must provide premises reasonably fit for the intended purposes of letting.


b. Extraordinary Repairs
Landlords are responsible for “extraordinary” repairs during the lease term, not typical everyday repairs but those resulting from unusual causes leading to extensive damage.


2. Tenant Obligations


a. General Upkeep

Tenants assume full responsibility for the maintenance, repair, and insurance of the property’s interior, structure, and sometimes exterior, keeping it in a “tenantable condition” or the same as at the lease’s start.

This legal obligation extends to the repair of any damage to the property, irrespective of the cause. This means that the tenant is constantly and continuously responsible for any wear and tear or damage that occurs to the property, whether it is the result of negligence on behalf of the tenant, negligence on behalf of the landlord, or a problem that could not have been predicted by either party, such as a hidden structural defect, fire, or flood damage.

A common cause of disputes is whether the tenant has met their contractual duty to maintain the property per the lease terms.

Landlords using FRI leases may successfully argue that tenantable conditions are of a much higher standard than would normally be deemed necessary by a court and require substantial investment by the tenant.


b. Structural Repairs and Defects

This includes all repairs, even structural ones and inherent defects. Tenants should conduct a property survey before leasing to identify potential issues.


c. insurance

Unless the landlord provides, tenants must take out comprehensive insurance covering the building and its contents.


d. reinstatement

In addition to the duty to repair and maintain a commercial property to a tenantable condition, FRI leases can have clauses enforcing the reinstatement of the building at the end of the lease. If reinstatement is included in an FRI lease, the tenant must restore the property to its original condition, which may entail undoing any modifications made during the tenancy. Any changes the tenant made to the premises during the tenancy, from introducing branding or a new colour scheme to changing door locks or more expansive alterations, would need to be undone.


3. Changes in the Law Affecting FRI Leases


These updates indicate a dynamic legal environment surrounding FRI leases, highlighting the importance of staying informed and seeking professional legal advice to navigate these changes effectively.


a. Leasehold Reform 2024
The Leasehold and Freehold Reform Bill aims to introduce significant changes that could impact FRI leases, especially regarding lease extensions and ground rent adjustments. Although specific impacts on FRI leases remain to be fully detailed, the reform could influence negotiations and financial planning for lease extensions .


b. MEES Compliance
Recent legal developments stress the landlord’s responsibility for ensuring properties meet the Minimum Energy Efficiency Standards (MEES). Despite a landlord’s attempt to shift some of these obligations to tenants, courts have primarily upheld that MEES compliance rests with the landlord. This could affect clauses related to energy performance certificates (EPCs) and tenant alterations impacting the EPC rating .


c. IFRS 16 Changes
The introduction of IFRS 16 significantly changes how leases are reported in financial statements, affecting operational and financial lease treatment. This could influence transparency and financial ratio assessments for businesses with FRI leases. The Financial Reporting Council (FRC) proposes changes, including treating operating leases as balance sheet items, which might impact SMEs’ accounting processes .


Section C: Common Causes of FRI Lease Disputes


Disputes in FRI leases often revolve around repair obligations, service charges, and compliance with lease terms. Resolution approaches include negotiation, mediation, or arbitration, focusing on the lease agreement’s specifics and any documented conditions or agreements made at the lease’s start.

Legal action might be necessary in more complex cases, where courts will refer to the lease terms and any relevant legal precedents.

Avoiding disputes by taking a proactive approach to risk management and dealing with issues promptly and effectively will always be preferable.

Typical areas of dispute to be aware of include:


1. Misunderstanding Responsibilities


The complexity of FRI leases can lead to confusion over responsibilities. It’s vital that both parties fully understand their obligations under the lease.


2. Overlooking Structural Issues


Tenants should conduct a structural or building survey to identify any existing or potential issues. This information can be used to negotiate repair responsibilities before lease signing.


3. Insurance Mismanagement


Tenants should ensure they have the correct insurance coverage and understand what is covered by the landlord’s policy to avoid unnecessary costs.

Unless the landlord has already taken out insurance on the building, either as a whole or concerning a specific risk, the tenant is responsible for taking out insurance on the building or filling any holes in the existing insurance policy.

FRI lease tenants must ensure that the insurance policy is comprehensive and detailed and covers both the building and its contents. A specialist insurance broker can help guarantee that the property is covered in all eventualities.

If the landlord has taken out insurance on the property, any damage covered by the insurance policy does not have to be repaired by the tenant. What the landlord has and has not insured against can be found in the building’s insurance policy, clarifying what the tenant is liable for.


4. Schedule of Condition


With both the responsibility to maintain and tenantable condition and property reinstatement, if the tenant begins the lease without undertaking a Schedule of Condition, a type of property survey documenting the condition of the property before the start of the lease, they can find themselves in disputes with the landlord over what condition the building was in at the start of the tenancy.

Tenants can limit their liability for repairs and conditions by requesting a Schedule of Conditions be annexed to the lease, documenting the property’s state at the lease start.


5. Negotiation of Terms


Landlords and tenants should negotiate lease terms carefully to ensure a fair distribution of responsibilities and costs. This includes negotiating caps on contributions to repairs and maintenance, the ability to make alterations, and terms for subletting if necessary.

An FRI Lease remains common in Scotland and the rest of the UK for leasehold transactions, but understanding its implications is crucial. Legal advice is strongly recommended to navigate these complexities and protect both parties .


6. Older Properties


Tenants who are renting a commercial property which is over 20 years old should be particularly aware of the following potential issues for which they would be responsible:


a. Problems with the building’s roof

Repairing and maintaining the roof can be among the highest costs to FRI lease tenants. A range of roof-related issues can occur in commercial buildings, from problems with the chimney to leaks, and issues with the roof can lead to wider damage to the building and additional costs. In addition to being expensive to repair, rooftop issues are often time-consuming and disruptive to the tenant’s business.


b. Damp

If dampness develops during a tenancy, whether due to condensation, rising, or penetrating, the tenant will need to cover its treatment, removal, and repair of any damage caused.


c. Subsidence

Faults in an old building’s subsidence can lead to widespread damage through cracks or structural movement and can be very costly to repair.


d. Building services

FRI tenants must maintain and service the building’s lifts, air conditioning or heating systems.


e. Asbestos

Should asbestos be discovered on the property, the tenant will be responsible for its safe removal.


f. External spaces connected to the building

FRI tenants are often responsible for the care, maintenance, and repair of car parks or gardens attached to the property. Potential costs include hiring a gardener or repairing broken fences.


7. New Properties


Although new buildings are less likely to incur some of the costlier repair and maintenance issues, such as asbestos removal, tenants should be aware of the risks associated with newer properties.

Under an FRI lease, tenants can be responsible for building defects that have yet to be discovered. New builds can have design or construction defects that are unknown when the FRI lease is signed but that the tenant must address and remedy when they become apparent. Hidden design and construction-related issues can be costly to resolve.


Section D: Negotiating an FRI Lease


Negotiating an FRI Lease requires a strategic approach to ensure favourable terms for landlords and tenants.

Although FRI leases have inherent risks for tenants, there are protective measures which can be negotiated with the landlord to ensure a fair balance of responsibility and protect the tenant from excessive costs.

Here are key strategies, terms and conditions to focus on during negotiations, and the role of legal advice:


1. Before Negotiating


Before signing any FRI lease, tenants should carefully consider the nature of the property, from a small shop to an office in a large building, the building’s age and location, and evaluate whether it is in good condition or at high risk of damage and maintenance issues.

Prospective tenants should insist on a property survey to inspect the state of the premises. If the landlord and tenant agree, it is advisable to incorporate a schedule of condition into the FRI lease contract to serve as a record and proof of the building’s condition at the start of the lease and ensure the mitigation of future dilapidation related to the building’s condition pre-lease.

Utilising a property survey, any instances of disrepair or structural issues in the building can then be raised with the landlord and used to negotiate either a reduction in rent or omission of responsibility to repair the identified pre-existing issue and any which arise because of it.

Multi-let FRI lease tenants should aim to negotiate terms that ensure they only pay for repair and maintenance issues on their part of the building. In multi-let buildings, landlords sometimes retain responsibility for repairing and maintaining public and communal spaces. In such cases, the contract should clearly state the parameters of the landlord’s responsibility, for example, whether they will be responsible for any damage that occurs in the tenant’s area as a result of failure to maintain a communal space.

Although landlords may be reluctant to agree to terms negating elements of tenant responsibility, negotiating terms with the tenant increases the likelihood of successfully acquiring tenants and of those tenants committing to long-term lets.

Other points which can be considered for negotiation include:

• Setting a cap on the tenant’s contribution to the property repair and maintenance
• Setting a cap on any service charges associated with the building
• Terms allowing the tenant to alter the property in accordance with their needs without the requirement to restore it (no reinstatement)
• Permission to sublet the property without financial penalties
• If the property is a new build, exclusion of any tenant’s responsibility to repair any damage or undertake remedial work on any design or construction defects which may be discovered during the tenancy.


2. Key Terms and Conditions to Negotiate


While landlords may be reluctant to agree to terms negating elements of tenant responsibility, negotiating terms with the tenant increases the likelihood of successfully acquiring tenants and of those tenants committing to long-term lets.


a. Rent-Free Periods

Seek a rent-free period at the start of the lease as an incentive, which can offer financial relief while setting up your business .


b. Break Clauses

Secure a break clause to provide flexibility to end the lease early. Aiming for a rolling break is beneficial, as it offers more opportunities to terminate the lease .


c. Repairing Obligation

Negotiate the extent of your repairing obligations. For older properties or short-term leases, consider limiting your obligation to maintain the property’s current state, possibly through a schedule of conditions .


d. Effective FRI Lease

Another alteration to traditional FRI leases would be what is known as an “effective FRI lease,” whereby the tenant has reduced responsibilities for aspects of the property’s repairs, for example, only being responsible for internal repairs. In effective FRI leases, the landlord retains responsibility for the property’s structural maintenance and repairs but recovers the cost from the tenant.


e. Rights to Transfer or Sublet

Negotiating the rights to transfer the lease or sublet the property with reasonable conditions for landlord consent ensures flexibility for your future business needs.


f. Alteration Rights

Clarify your rights to make necessary alterations to the property, distinguishing between structural and non-structural changes to suit your business requirements .

End of Lease Obligations: Discuss and agree on the expectations for the property’s condition at the end of the lease, including the possibility of leaving beneficial alterations in place.


3. Taking Legal Advice


Securing expert support is crucial in navigating the complexities of FRI leases. A commercial property lawyer can provide invaluable assistance throughout the negotiation process. Here’s why legal advice is paramount:


a. Expert Guidance

Legal professionals can advise on appropriate rent levels, identify potential issues with the lease terms, and help negotiate favourable conditions .


b. Understanding Business Rates

Lawyers can help understand the implications of business rates on your lease and explore any eligible discounts significantly affecting your overall costs .


c. Structuring the Lease

Depending on your business plans and growth projections, legal advisors can recommend the appropriate lease length and the inclusion of break clauses for optimal flexibility .


d. Navigating Lease Terms

Legal advisors ensure that the lease terms align with your business interests , from negotiating rent-free periods to understanding your repair and maintenance obligations.


e. Planning Permissions and Regulations

Legal professionals can assist in navigating planning permissions and other regulatory requirements, preventing potential delays or restrictions on your use of the property .


4. Examples of How Tenants can Negotiate on a FRI Lease


The extent to which a tenant is held accountable for repairs by a landlord varies based on the type of commercial premises and specific circumstances. Additionally, the condition of the commercial property market influences a tenant’s negotiation leverage—in a market with high demand for commercial spaces, landlords might be less willing to modify certain lease clauses.

Tenants can reduce their repair liabilities by taking several steps, such as conducting comprehensive surveys of the property before lease signing, negotiating with the landlord to address any defects beforehand, setting limits on service charges, and seeking allowances for everyday wear and tear.

Tenants should also aim to restrict their liability to internal repairs and exclude responsibility for inherent defects, possibly through latent defects insurance and referencing any building defects in a professionally prepared Schedule of Condition.


FRI Lease FAQs


What happens at the end of an FRI lease?

At the end of an FRI lease, tenants are typically required to return the property to its original or agreed condition, accounting for fair wear and tear. This might involve repairs, renovations, or reinstatements based on the lease terms.


Can an FRI lease be terminated early?

Early termination of an FRI lease is possible if there’s a break clause included in the agreement. Both parties must agree to any early termination outside of this clause, which might involve negotiations or penalties.


How are repairs and maintenance issues handled?

Under an FRI lease, the tenant is usually responsible for all property repairs and maintenance. This includes structural, internal, and external repairs unless specified in the lease agreement.





Introduction to FRI Leases (A Deep Dive!) 1

Gill Laing is a qualified Legal Researcher & Analyst with niche specialisms in Law, Tax, Human Resources, Immigration & Employment Law.

Gill is a Multiple Business Owner and the Managing Director of Prof Services - a Marketing Agency for the Professional Services Sector.

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