UK Conveyancing: A Guide to Property Transfer


Conveyancing is the legal process of transferring property ownership from one party to another. It is the procedure that must be followed whenever a property is bought or sold in the UK, ensuring that the transfer of ownership is completed effectively, with the buyer receiving a clear title and the seller fulfilling all legal obligations.

Conveyancing is rarely straightforward. Despite thousands of properties going through conveyancing each day, it remains a hugely complex process, from dealing with the various parties involved, including HM Land Registry (HMLR), to managing stamp duty payments.

The conveyancing market in the UK has continuously adapted to changing legal, social, and technological environments, making it a vital and dynamic component of the property industry.

Whether you are a first-time buyer, selling a property, or simply interested in the property market, an understanding of the conveyancing process can significantly enhance your grasp of what to expect during property transactions and help minimise any potential legal issues.

In this comprehensive guide to conveyancing, we will explain everything you need to know about conveyancing in the UK. We will explore different types of conveyancing services and the stages of the legal process and share tips on selecting the right conveyancer. We’ll also answer frequently asked questions to equip you with the information you need to navigate the conveyancing landscape confidently.


Section A: What is Conveyancing?


Conveyancing refers to the legal process of transferring ownership of real property from one person to another. It involves preparing, executing, and recording legal documents to ensure that the buyer obtains a free and clear title to the property and that the seller transfers all their rights to the property to the buyer.

The conveyancing process begins with an offer being accepted on a property and concludes with the final settlement, where ownership is legally transferred.


1. Key Stages of Conveyancing


There are a number of key stages in the conveyancing process. These are:


a. Drafting and Review of Contracts

The conveyancer drafts or reviews a contract of sale prepared by the seller’s solicitor, ensuring that terms and conditions are clearly stated and protective of their client’s interests.


b. Searches and Enquiries

Various searches regarding the property are conducted, such as local authority searches, environmental searches, and title searches. These searches reveal any issues that might impact the buyer’s enjoyment of the property, such as planning restrictions or flood risks.


c. Arranging Financing

If the purchase involves a mortgage, the conveyancer liaises with the mortgage lender to ensure that the finance is in place and that the lender’s conditions are reflected in the contract.


d. Exchange of Contracts

This legally binding step involves both parties signing the contract and the buyer paying a deposit. After the exchange, neither party can back out without significant penalties.


e. Completion

On the completion date, the balance of the purchase price is transferred from the buyer to the seller. The buyer then receives the keys, and legal ownership transfers to the buyer.


f. Post-completion

After completion, the conveyancer handles the payment of Stamp Duty Land Tax, registers the buyer as the new owner with the Land Registry, and resolves any final details, such as discharging the seller’s mortgage.


The duration of the conveyancing process in the UK can vary significantly based on various factors, including the complexity of the transaction, the type of property, whether the property is part of a chain and the efficiency of the parties involved.

But a typical duration usually lasts as follows:


Instruction to Exchange of Contracts: Approximately 8-12 weeks. This is the most variable part of the process, as it can be delayed by slow responses to enquiries, issues found in searches, or complications with the mortgage.

Exchange of Contracts to Completion: Typically, it takes 1-4 weeks, but it can be immediate (known as a simultaneous exchange and completion) or longer if both parties agree.

Post-Completion: This usually takes a few days to several weeks, depending on how quickly the post-completion formalities, like tax payments and registration, are processed.


Under normal circumstances, the total duration from the initial instruction to the end of the post-completion stage can generally take 10 to 16 weeks. However, it’s important to note that this can extend further if there are complications or delays at any stage.

Buyers and sellers should maintain flexible expectations and communicate closely with their conveyancer throughout the process to address any issues promptly.


3. The Role of Conveyancing When Buying and Selling Property


When buying property, conveyancing provides security, ensuring that buyers receive good title to the land, free from any hidden charges or restrictions. It also ensures all legal obligations are met, preventing future legal disputes over land ownership, and provides a clear understanding of the financial commitments involved, including taxes and other associated costs.

From the seller’s perspective, the conveyancing process is used to help them meet their legal obligations to disclose certain information, avoiding potential legal repercussions. It also aids in the smooth transfer of property to protect all parties’ interests during the transaction while ensuring all financial obligations tied to the property, like existing mortgages or liens, are settled.


4. Impact of Conveyancing on the UK Property Market


Conveyancing plays a crucial role in maintaining the integrity of the property market. It ensures transparency, reduces the risk of fraud, and helps maintain market stability by ensuring that property transactions are conducted legally and efficiently.

This process not only protects individual buyers and sellers but also supports the overall health of the real estate market, contributing to economic stability.


Section B: History of Conveyancing in the UK


1. Evolution of UK Conveyancing


The practice of conveyancing in the UK has a rich history, evolving through centuries of legal developments and societal changes.


a. Early History

The roots of property law in the UK trace back to feudal times when land ownership was tied closely to allegiance to a lord or the Crown. The transfer of land during these times required royal consent and was heavily regulated.

During the Middle Ages, the legal foundations of property transfer began to take a more recognisable form. The use of written deeds and the role of local courts became prominent in the conveyancing process.

The process further developed between the 17th and 19th centuries. The Statute of Frauds 1677 was a significant piece of legislation, mandating that all contracts for the sale of land must be in writing to be legally enforceable. This had the effect of substantially formalising the conveyancing process.

Through the Industrial Revolution, as the population grew and urbanised, the demand for property increased, leading to more complex legal requirements in property transactions and a more structured conveyancing system.


b. 20th Century to Present

The introduction of Land Registration Act 1925 was crucial as it established a system for land registration that aimed to simplify the conveyancing process and reduce the risk of fraud. Over time, the majority of land in England and Wales has been registered under this system.

The latter half of the 20th century saw significant technological changes, such as the use of computers and digital databases, which streamlined many aspects of the conveyancing process.

In 1985, the Administration of Justice Act allowed licensed conveyancers as well as solicitors to perform conveyancing tasks, broadening the market and increasing competition.

The Land Registration Act 2002 replaced the Land Registration Act of 1925, which itself was a transformative piece of legislation aimed at creating a more reliable and accessible land registration system.

The rise of the internet in the 21st century has transformed conveyancing, with online services speeding up the transaction process, improving accessibility, and reducing costs.

Ongoing discussions about reforming the conveyancing process to make it faster and more transparent continue to shape the market.


2. Development of the Conveyancing Market


The conveyancing market in the UK has become highly competitive, with solicitors and licensed conveyancers vying for business. This competition has led to improvements in service and a focus on cost efficiency and client satisfaction.

Various regulatory changes aimed at improving the transparency and efficiency of the conveyancing process have shaped the market. These include reforms to reduce the risk of fraud and make the process more consumer-friendly.

Technology has drastically impacted the conveyancing market by enabling online conveyancing services, which offer consumers the ability to track their case in real time, electronic document handling, and faster communication. This digitisation has not only sped up the process but has also introduced a new dynamic in terms of service delivery and client expectations.

The future of conveyancing looks to be increasingly digital, with further integration of blockchain and other advanced technologies potentially revolutionising how property transactions are conducted, improving security, and further reducing the timeframes involved.

Read our Lawble Conveyancing Market Overview here >>


Section C: Types of Conveyancing Services


Conveyancing services in the UK can be broadly categorised into two main types: residential and commercial. Each type caters to specific needs and involves different processes and considerations.


1. Residential Conveyancing


Residential conveyancing deals with the buying and selling of residential properties, such as houses, apartments, and flats.

This service is applicable when an individual or a family intends to purchase or sell a residential property. Whether it’s a first-time buyer, someone moving to a larger home, or an individual investing in residential real estate, residential conveyancing is necessary to ensure the legality and smooth running of the transaction.

The process typically involves the following steps:


Step 1: Initial Stage


The first formal stage of the legal conveyancing process involves taking instructions from the client, preparing and reviewing the contract of sale, conducting necessary searches (like local authority searches), and addressing any enquiries from the buyer’s side.


Step 2: Exchange of Contracts


Next, both parties agree to the terms, exchange contracts, and the buyer pays a deposit. This stage legally binds both parties to the transaction.


Step 3: Completion


During the final stage, the balance of the purchase price is transferred, the seller vacates the property, keys are handed over, and the transfer of ownership is registered with the Land Registry.


2. Commercial Conveyancing


Commercial conveyancing involves the transfer of ownership or leasing of properties used for business purposes, such as offices, shops, industrial units, or mixed-use buildings.

Commercial conveyancing is used when businesses are involved in buying, selling, or leasing property. It is applicable for investors dealing in commercial real estate, businesses expanding their operations to new locations, or landlords and tenants entering into commercial leases.

The process is generally more complex than residential conveyancing due to the additional legal and regulatory considerations and can typically involve:


Step 1: Initial Reviews and Negotiations


Commercial conveyancers handle the negotiation of the terms of sale or lease, review and draft commercial property contracts, and perform due diligence to check for any zoning laws, property tax implications, and environmental issues.


Step 2: Detailed Searches and Enquiries


More extensive than residential due to the nature of commercial use, searches and enquiries might include detailed environmental searches and assessing the implications of local planning laws.


Step 3: Exchange and Completion


Similar to residential conveyancing, this stage often involves more parties and complex financial arrangements for commercial transactions.

Completion times can also be longer, and contracts may include clauses specific to commercial transactions, such as break clauses or rent reviews.


3. Key Differences Between Residential and Commercial Conveyancing


Understanding these two main types of conveyancing services helps potential buyers or sellers select the right conveyancing professional who specialises in the relevant field, ensuring that their property transactions are handled effectively and efficiently.

Commercial conveyancing typically involves higher values and greater complexity and, therefore, carries higher risks. Legal and commercial due diligence is crucial to uncover all potential liabilities associated with the property, such as compliance with health and safety regulations.

The legal framework governing commercial transactions is also different, often involving aspects of commercial law not usually encountered in residential conveyancing. This includes aspects like commercial leases, business rates, and corporate tax considerations.

In general, commercial deals are more likely to involve intensive negotiations over the terms of contracts and leases, which must be carefully managed to protect the interests of the client.

The duration of commercial transactions can also vary greatly depending on the scale of the investment and the complexity of the property involved.


Section D: The Conveyancing Process in the UK


1. Overview of the Conveyancing Process in the UK


The conveyancing process in the UK involves several key stages and requires handling numerous legal documents to ensure the transaction is legally valid and binding.


Stage 1: Instruction and Initial Stages


a. Client Instruction: The process begins when a buyer or seller instructs a conveyancer to handle their property transaction.

b. Client Verification: Due to legal regulations, conveyancers must verify the identity of their clients to comply with anti-money laundering laws.

c. Document Preparation: The seller’s conveyancer prepares the draft contract, which includes details about the sale price, property boundaries, fixtures and fittings, and any relevant rights or restrictions.


Stage 2: Pre-Contract Stage


a. Conducting Searches: Various searches are necessary to uncover any legal impediments or issues with the property. These typically include local authority searches to check for local planning, traffic or other municipal issues; environmental searches to identify risks such as flooding or land contamination; and water authority searches to determine how water is supplied to the property and if any public drains on the property could affect building works.

b. Reviewing Results: Both parties’ conveyancers review search results and address potential issues.

c. Answering Pre-Contract Enquiries: The buyer’s conveyancer raises queries based on the documents and search results received, which the seller’s conveyancer must answer.


Stage 3: Exchange of Contracts


a. Signing Contracts: Once all enquiries are satisfied and mortgage arrangements confirmed (if applicable), both parties sign their copies of the final contract.

b. Exchange: The contracts are then exchanged, usually by both conveyancers agreeing over the phone. This act makes the agreement legally binding, and neither party can back out without facing penalties.

c. Deposit: The buyer pays a deposit, typically 10% of the purchase price.


Stage 4: Pre-Completion


a. Final Preparations: Final checks are made, including ensuring that all financial arrangements are in place.

b. Completion Statement: The buyer’s conveyancer prepares a completion statement and requests the remaining balance of the purchase price.


Stage 5: Completion


a. Transfer of Funds and Keys: On the completion date, the buyer’s conveyancer transfers the funds to the seller’s conveyancer. Once received, the keys are released to the buyer.

b. Notification of Transfer: The seller’s conveyancer confirms to the Land Registry that the sale is complete.


Stage 6: Post-Completion


a. Stamp Duty Land Tax (SDLT): The buyer is responsible for paying SDLT if the property is above a certain price threshold. This tax must be paid and the return filed with HM Revenue & Customs (HMRC) within 14 days of completion.

b. Registration: The buyer’s conveyancer submits an application to the Land Registry to register the buyer as the new owner of the property.


2. Key Documents Involved


The following documents are critical to the conveyancing process:

a. Contract of Sale: Sets out the terms of the sale, including the price and legal obligations.

b. Title Deeds: Document showing the chain of ownership of the property.

c. Transfer Deed (TR1): The legal document that transfers the ownership from the seller to the buyer.

d. Mortgage Deed: Document that secures the mortgage against the property.

e. Search Reports: Results from various searches concerning local authority information, environmental factors, etc.

f. SDLT Form: Used to pay Stamp Duty Land Tax.


Section E: Choosing the Right Conveyancer


1. Choosing the Right Conveyancer of Conveyancing Solicitor


Selecting the right conveyancer or conveyancing solicitor involves considering their expertise, communication style, fee structure, and reviews. Taking the time to select a professional who meets your specific needs can make a significant difference in the efficiency and success of your property transaction.

Please read our extensive guide to choosing a conveyancing solicitor here >>

Things to look for in a conveyancer or conveyancing solicitor include:


a. Accreditation and Qualifications

Ensure that the professional is legally authorised to practice. For solicitors, check if they are registered with the Solicitors Regulation Authority (SRA). For licensed conveyancers, they should be regulated by the Council for Licensed Conveyancers (CLC).


b. Experience

Look for a conveyancer with experience relevant to the type of property transaction you are involved in (residential or commercial). Experience can significantly affect the smooth handling of complexities that might arise.


c. Communication Skills

Effective communication is essential. Your conveyancer should be approachable and willing to explain the complex elements of the process in understandable terms.


d. Fees and Costs

Transparency about fees is crucial. Ensure they provide a detailed breakdown of their costs, including any additional fees that may apply for extra services like expedited processes or dealing with leasehold properties.


e. Reviews and Recommendations

Check reviews from previous clients to gauge the quality of service and client satisfaction. Personal recommendations can also be a reliable source of information.


2. Differences Between Solicitors and Conveyancers


a. Qualifications

Solicitors are qualified to handle a broad range of legal issues and undergo extensive training covering many areas of law. They are regulated by the SRA.

Licensed conveyancers are specialists in property law who have undergone training specifically focused on conveyancing. They are regulated by the CLC.


b. Services Provided

Solicitors can provide full legal services, meaning they can handle other legal issues that might affect the property transaction, such as estate planning or divorce-related property settlements.

On the other hand, licensed conveyancers focus exclusively on property transactions, and although specialised, they might not handle other legal issues.


c. Cost

Solicitors often charge higher fees than conveyancers because of their broader legal expertise, while licensed conveyancers may offer more competitive rates for conveyancing services due to their focused expertise.


3. Tips on Finding the Best Service Providers


a. Get Multiple Quotes

Compare quotes from different conveyancers or solicitors to find the best deal. Remember, the cheapest option might not always be the best.


b. Check Accessibility

Consider how easy it is to get in touch with your conveyancer. Being able to communicate efficiently can be crucial, especially in time-sensitive situations.


c. Local Knowledge

A conveyancer with local knowledge can be invaluable, particularly when dealing with local authorities and understanding specific regional property issues.


d. Technology and Tools

Check if they use modern technology or online systems that allow you to track the progress of your transaction in real time.


e. Professional Network

A good conveyancer or solicitor often works with a network of other professionals, such as surveyors, estate agents, and mortgage advisors, which can be beneficial.


Section F: Legal Aspects of Conveyancing


1. Legal Considerations During the Conveyancing Process


Conveyancing in the UK involves several legal aspects that must be carefully managed to ensure a successful transaction.


a. Title Investigation

One of the primary roles of a conveyancer is to verify the title of the property. This includes ensuring the seller legally owns the property and has the right to sell it and there are no legal barriers that would prevent the transfer of ownership.


b. Contract Terms

The terms of the purchase contract must be thoroughly checked and negotiated to protect the interests of both parties. This includes the sale price, deposit amount, completion date, and any conditions or contingencies.


c. Property Searches

Conducting various searches is crucial to uncover any issues affecting the property’s value or use, such as local authority searches, environmental searches, and planning permissions.


d. Stamp Duty Land Tax (SDLT)

Proper calculation and timely payment of SDLT are essential to avoid penalties. The amount of SDLT varies depending on the property price, type, and if it’s a first home, additional property, etc.


e. Regulatory Compliance

The conveyancing process must comply with various regulations, including those related to anti-money laundering and data protection.


f. Mortgage Requirements

If the property is being purchased with a mortgage, the conveyancer must ensure that all of the lender’s conditions are met before funds are released.


2. Common Legal Issues in Conveyancing


Conveyancing is fraught with legal risk. To navigate these legal aspects effectively, it’s advisable to work with a skilled and experienced conveyancer who can handle the complexities of the transaction and provide guidance on legal compliance and risk management.


a. Defective Title

A title might have defects, such as discrepancies in boundary lines or outstanding liens. Conduct thorough title searches and obtain title insurance to protect against unforeseen claims.


b. Planning Permission and Building Regulations

Previous alterations or extensions to the property may not have the necessary planning permissions or comply with building regulations. Obtain all relevant documentation and certificates related to planning and building regulations from the seller before proceeding.


c. Chain Issues

Property transactions often depend on the successful sale of another property. If one transaction in the chain falls through, others can be delayed or cancelled. Keep in regular communication with your conveyancer and other parties involved to monitor progress and prepare contingencies.


d. Incorrect Property Information

Sellers may provide incorrect or incomplete information regarding the property. Conduct independent checks and verify all information provided. Use professional surveys if necessary.


e. Financial Delays

Delays in obtaining mortgage approval or transferring funds can postpone or jeopardise the transaction. Ensure all financial arrangements are in order well in advance of the expected completion date.


f. Fraud and Scams

Conveyancing fraud can occur, for example, through email interception, where fraudsters divert payment of funds. Always verify payment details directly with the conveyancing solicitor via known and secure communication methods.


Section G: Conveyancing Costs


1. Costs Associated with Conveyancing


Understanding the costs involved in conveyancing is crucial for anyone entering a property transaction. The following is a general guide to the types of fees and charges typically incurred during the conveyancing process:


a. Conveyancer’s or Solicitor’s Fees
These fees depend on the adviser’s experience, the location, and the complexity of the transaction. For residential properties, fees can range from about £850 to £1500 plus VAT.

Fees may be charged at an hourly rate or as a fixed fee. Fixed fees mean you pay a set amount for the service regardless of the time it takes to complete the transaction. This is advantageous as it provides certainty and clarity on costs from the outset.

Some advisers charge for their services by the hour. Hourly rates can vary widely depending on the adviser’s expertise and location but typically range from between £100 to £300 per hour. While hourly rates can sometimes result in a lower total cost for straightforward transactions, they can also lead to unexpectedly high fees if complications arise.


b. Disbursements

These are costs paid to third parties, including:


1. Search Fees: These cover local authority searches, environmental searches, and more, typically costing between £250 and £450.

2. Land Registry Fees: Fees for registering a new owner of the property, dependent on the price of the property, ranging from £20 to £910.

3. Bank Transfer Fees: Usually around £20-£30 for transferring money.

4. Stamp Duty Land Tax (SDLT): This varies significantly based on the property price, whether it’s a primary residence and the buyer’s circumstances.


c. Additional Costs

Depending on the specifics of the transaction, there may be additional costs for more complex situations, such as dealing with a leasehold property, which requires additional checks and documentation.


2. Tips to Save Money During the Conveyancing Process


Follow these tips to help you make more informed decisions and potentially save money on your conveyancing fees:


a. Compare Quotes

Obtain multiple quotes from different conveyancers. Be sure to compare what is included in these quotes to ensure you are comparing like for like.


b. Negotiate Fees

Don’t be afraid to negotiate the fees with your conveyancer. Especially if you bring multiple potential transactions or if you are a returning client, there may be room for negotiation.


c. Understand What You’re Paying For

Make sure you fully understand what each fee and disbursement covers so you can question any charges that seem unnecessary.


d. Take on Some Tasks Yourself

Some conveyancers might reduce their fees if you are willing to undertake some of the simpler tasks yourself, such as gathering certain documents or conducting some initial research.


e. Use a Conveyancer Who Offers a No Move, No Fee Guarantee

This can protect you from paying the full fee if the transaction falls through before completion.


f. Timing

Avoid peak times if possible, such as the end of the financial year or just before stamp duty changes, as conveyancers may offer discounts during slower periods.


Section H: Conveyancing Myths Debunked


Conveyancing involves many technical aspects, which can sometimes lead to misunderstandings about the process.

Let’s debunk some of these myths with factual information:


Myth 1: Conveyancing is Just Paper-Pushing

Debunked: While conveyancing does involve a lot of paperwork, it is a critical legal process that requires detailed knowledge of property law, meticulous attention to detail, and the ability to negotiate and manage complex legal documents. Conveyancers ensure that the transfer of property ownership is legally sound, which protects both the buyer and the seller from future legal troubles.


Myth 2: The Cheapest Conveyancing Service is Just as Good as Any

Debunked: While it’s important to look for value, choosing a conveyancer based solely on price can be risky. Conveyancing fees that are significantly lower than others may indicate a lack of service depth, which can cost more in the long run if issues arise. Quality and reliability are crucial as they ensure thorough handling of your transaction.


Myth 3: Conveyancing Can Be Done Quickly If Pushed

Debunked: The conveyancing process involves multiple steps, some of which depend on external parties such as local authorities, mortgage lenders, and other entities that cannot always expedite their processes.

While certain aspects can be prioritised, a thorough and cautious approach is necessary to avoid errors and ensure that all legal requirements are met.


Myth 4: All Conveyancing is the Same, No Matter the Property

Debunked: Conveyancing can vary significantly depending on whether the property is freehold or leasehold, residential or commercial, new build or existing property. Each type of property comes with its own set of specific legal considerations and potential complications, necessitating specialised knowledge and handling.


Myth 5: You Must Use the Conveyancer Recommended by Your Real Estate Agent

Debunked: While estate agents often recommend conveyancers (sometimes because they have a financial incentive through referral fees), you are under no obligation to use them. It’s important to select a conveyancer based on their expertise, reputation, and your comfort level with them, not just a recommendation.


Myth 6: Electronic Conveyancing is Less Secure

Debunked: Modern electronic conveyancing systems use advanced security measures to protect data and are constantly updated to handle threats. Electronic or online conveyancing can actually enhance the efficiency and tracking of the conveyancing process, providing transparency and faster communication between parties.


Myth 7: Conveyancers Only Need to be Contacted Once an Offer is Accepted

Debunked: It’s beneficial to engage a conveyancer early in the property buying or selling process. They can provide valuable advice even before an offer is made or accepted, helping to prepare documents, clarify legal terms, and outline potential issues with the property or transaction.


Section I: Summary


Choosing the right conveyancing service is a critical decision that can significantly influence the success and smoothness of your property transaction. The process of conveyancing is intricate and laden with legal complexities that require not just knowledge but also diligence and precision.

A skilled conveyancer navigates the legal nuances of property transactions, ensuring all legal requirements are met. Their expertise helps in identifying potential issues early offering solutions and advice to avoid costly mistakes or delays.

Each property transaction is unique, and a seasoned conveyancer can tailor their services to match the specific needs and circumstances of your transaction, whether it involves complex legal issues, is a straightforward residential transfer, or requires quick completion.

The conveyancing service you choose will impact not only the success of your property transaction but also your overall experience throughout the process. Opting for a conveyancer who offers transparency, has a robust track record, and demonstrates a thorough understanding of property law is indispensable. This choice ensures not only the legal integrity of your property transaction but also your satisfaction and security as a buyer or seller in the property market.


Section J: FAQs About Conveyancing


What is conveyancing?

Conveyancing is the legal process of transferring property ownership from one person to another. It involves the preparation, execution, and recording of documents necessary for legal property transfer.


Who can perform conveyancing?

Conveyancing can be performed by a licensed conveyancer or a conveyancing solicitor. Both are regulated professionals, but solicitors can also provide a wider range of legal services.


How long does the conveyancing process take?

On average, the conveyancing process can take between 8 to 12 weeks from the acceptance of an offer to completion. However, this can vary widely depending on the complexity of the transaction and the efficiency of the parties involved.


What are conveyancing searches, and why are they important?

Conveyancing searches are enquiries made to various authorities that provide essential information about the property. These include local authority searches, environmental searches, and water searches. They are important because they reveal potential issues such as planning restrictions, flood risks, or pollution concerns that could affect the property’s value or usability.


What happens if a property fails one of the searches?

If a search reveals a problem, it doesn’t necessarily stop the sale but does give a chance to renegotiate terms or ask the seller to resolve the issues before proceeding. In some cases, insurance policies can be purchased to cover potential losses arising from certain defects.


Can I do my own conveyancing?

While it is legally possible to do your own conveyancing, it is generally not recommended unless you have a strong understanding of property law. Mistakes can be costly and may result in significant legal complications.


What are disbursements in conveyancing?

Disbursements are costs paid by the conveyancer on your behalf to third parties, such as fees for searches, land registry fees, and other miscellaneous expenses related to your case.


Is conveyancing necessary for transferring property between family members?

Yes, even when transferring property between family members, conveyancing is necessary to ensure the legality of the transfer, proper registration of the property, and to handle any financial implications like stamp duty.


What is the difference between exchange and completion?

The exchange of contracts is when the mutual agreements are made legally binding, and both parties are committed to the transaction with penalties for withdrawal. Completion is when the transaction is finalised; funds are transferred, keys are handed over, and the buyer becomes the legal owner of the property.


Can the conveyancing process be expedited?

Expedited conveyancing is possible but depends largely on the cooperation of all parties involved, including quick responses from authorities and other stakeholders. However, rushing through conveyancing can sometimes overlook important details, so it’s essential to still proceed with caution.


Section K: Glossary of Conveyancing Terms


Conveyancing: The legal process of transferring ownership of real property from one person to another.

Conveyancer: A specialist legal professional who manages the conveyancing process, ensuring that the legal transfer of property is conducted properly.

Title: Legal evidence of a person’s right to ownership of a property.

Deeds: Official documents that show past and current ownership of the property. They contain detailed information about the property’s boundaries, rights, and obligations.

Contract of Sale: A legal agreement between the buyer and seller of property which outlines the terms and conditions of the sale.

Land Registry: A government office that maintains records of all registered properties in an area, including ownership and mortgage details.

Searches: Investigations conducted by the conveyancer to check the status of the property, including local authority records, environmental factors, and planning permissions.

Stamp Duty Land Tax (SDLT): A tax paid on properties purchased over a certain price threshold in England and Northern Ireland.

Disbursements: Additional costs in the conveyancing process paid to third parties, such as search fees and Land Registry fees.

Exchange of Contracts: The point at which signed contracts are physically or electronically swapped between the buyer’s and seller’s conveyancers, making the transaction legally binding.

Completion: The final stage in the property transaction where all remaining funds are transferred, and ownership passes to the buyer.

Chain: A sequence of linked property transactions, each dependent on the completion of the others.

Leasehold: A type of property tenure where one owns the property for a set period but not the land on which it stands.

Freehold: A type of property tenure where one owns both the property and the land on which it stands indefinitely.

Mortgage Offer: Formal offer made by a lender to loan money at a certain interest rate and under specific conditions.

Vendor: The seller of the property.

Purchaser: The buyer of the property.

Transfer Deed: A document that the seller and buyer sign to transfer ownership of the property.

Equity: The value of the property after deducting any loan or mortgage.

Gazumping: A situation where a seller accepts a higher offer from a new buyer after already accepting an initial offer from another buyer.

Gazundering: A situation where a buyer lowers their offer on the property after previously agreeing to a higher price, typically just before the exchange of contracts.


Section L: Links & References


The following links offer a wealth of information, covering regulatory details, professional advice, practical guides, and comparison tools for conveyancing services. They are essential for anyone involved in buying or selling property in the UK, ensuring they have access to the most reliable and up-to-date information.


Governmental and Regulatory Bodies


Land Registry
Description: Manages the register of land ownership in England and Wales.


HM Revenue & Customs (HMRC) – Stamp Duty Land Tax (SDLT)
Description: Information on stamp duty payments for property transactions.


The Law Society
Description: The professional association for solicitors in England and Wales.


Council for Licensed Conveyancers (CLC)
Description: Regulatory body for licensed conveyancers in England and Wales.


Solicitors Regulation Authority (SRA)
Description: Regulatory body for solicitors in England and Wales.


Professional Associations


The Conveyancing Association
Description: Trade association for conveyancers that provides industry updates and best practices.


The Society of Licensed Conveyancers
Description: Represents licensed conveyancers in the UK.


Educational Resources and Guides


Which? – Conveyancing
Description: Provides a series of guides on what conveyancing is, the steps involved, and how to choose the right conveyancer.


Money Saving Expert – Guide to Conveyancing
Description: Offers practical advice on the conveyancing process and how to save money during a home purchase.


HomeOwners Alliance
Description: Provides simple explanations and guides for home buyers about the conveyancing process.


Tools and Services


Rightmove – Conveyancing
Description: Offers a tool to find and compare quotes from conveyancers.


Zoopla – Conveyancing
Description: Provides a service to compare conveyancing quotes easily online.






UK Conveyancing: A Guide to Property Transfer 1

Gill Laing is a qualified Legal Researcher & Analyst with niche specialisms in Law, Tax, Human Resources, Immigration & Employment Law.

Gill is a Multiple Business Owner and the Managing Director of Prof Services - a Marketing Agency for the Professional Services Sector.

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